In the recent years, the diagnostic-therapeutic pathway of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer has been dramatically subverted by the advent of innovative drugs for metastatic disease, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors and targeted agents, as far as with the progress in the next generation sequencing finally leading to early drug  access strategies with a precision patient-centered oncology model.
The daily clinical practice is quite different from randomized clinical trials, including patients normally excluded from pivotal  studies, thus hiding evidence on specific subgroups of patients. On the same way, both next generation sequencing and innovative drugs access require a management model for appropriateness and affordability of such interventions. 
With these premises, a clinical governance model based on Regional Oncology Networks and made of specialized working groups for diagnostic-therapeutic pathways tracking, innovative drugs recommendations, molecular tumor boards, and clinical research development is mandatory and may offer relevant information for different stakeholders (physicians, patients, regional health system, industry).
The aim of this third edition of Thoracic Oncology Network which is held in Padua, is to discuss all the above mentioned issues in order to improve the current knowldege and to integrate science with management strategies in order to bridge the gap between the ‘ideal’ picture of clinical trials and the ‘real’ clinical practice.